Health

Anxiety in women

The number one mental health problem suffered by women today is excessive worry and anxiety. This is according to Dr Holly Hazlett-Stevens, author of ‘Women who worry too much.’

Women who worry too much

This is supported by figures reported by the Office for National Statistics, which indicate that one in ten people in the UK will experience anxiety and associated depression. Ireland is not safe from this modern malaise either. Debbie Van Tonder, clinical nurse specialist in anxiety disorders at St Patrick’s University, Dublin, told The Irish Times,

“Anxiety is increasing in Ireland and we are seeing far more anxiety disorders than we did three or four years ago.”

Indeed, the problem of excessive worrying is already so severe that increasing numbers of women are being diagnosed with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Women with GAD experience excessive worrying on most days, which interferes with all areas of their life, from work to family.

Anxiety in women in the 21st century

To worry is to experience fear, apprehension, or anxiety, in the present moment about an imagined future event or circumstance. It’s a common human response to negative expectations about the future, and is therefore accepted as normal, especially in novel circumstances like a new job or moving house.

Generally, this is true. Worry is normal and can be healthy – that is, worry can be healthy in moderation and in the appropriate circumstances. Excessive worrying, which is when a person is in a persistently high state of emotional and physical arousal, can lead to extreme forms of anxiety that can be dangerous to our mental and physical health and well-being.

Not only do anxiety-related disorders affect women more than men, but many women never receive professional treatment. Often, they aren’t even aware that they are suffering from this debilitating yet controllable modern illness.

anxiety in women

According to Marcell Pick, author of Are You Tired And Wired? more women than ever before suffer from high levels of anxiety-generated tension which goes largely undetected for months or years by medical and health care professionals.

Research conducted by New York Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry, Robert Leahy, revealed that the average length of time it takes for a woman to be diagnosed as an anxiety sufferer, from the moment the initial symptoms appear, can take an astounding nine to 12 years.

In the interim, most women don’t seek help but regard their symptoms as something that’s normal for a woman. It’s only when a host of physical and psychological symptoms compel women to seek professional help that a formal diagnosis of GAD emerges as the main reason behind a diverse array of complications and illness.

Why are women more anxious than men?

Looking for an overriding reason that explains women’s excessive worrying when compared with men is fruitless; there are too many factors involved, says health writer Stephanie Pappas. Social, cultural, environmental, physiological, psychological and even evolutionary considerations are all potential contributory factors. Here are some possible explanations for why women are more prone to anxiety than men:

  • Genetics – women are genetically predisposed to have a wider emotional repertoire than men, and are therefore more aware of their feelings. This can increase the tendency to ruminate, says Counsellor Nancy Travers.
  • Physiology – anxiety has physiological origins, and is especially related to hormonal imbalances and higher levels of reproductive hormones in women.
  • Cultural pressure – western and westernised modern women are under excessive social pressure to look and be a certain way. Not only are they expected to hold down successful careers while being a dedicated mother and wife, but they are also expected to conform to an ever-changing ‘perfect female body.’ Body anxiety is in fact one of the biggest worries experienced by the modern woman.
  • Modern lifestyles – although both women and men experience the pressures and ill-effects of modern lifestyles, the boundaries between private and working lives have become increasingly blurred for women. Many women still cook, clean, see to the children, work out, see friends, and stay in touch with extended family, all after a hard day at work.

anxiety in women

The odds certainly seem against women when it comes to anxiety. Fortunately, however, there are some simple steps that the excessive worrier can take to combat high anxiety.

How to combat high anxiety

There are four key ways to combat high anxiety:

1.  Mindful living

Dr Hazlett-Stevens suggests that women practice daily mindfulness exercises designed to stop them from dwelling on the future. Focusing on the future tends to invite anxiety, whereas living mindfully helps to keep you grounded and absorbed in the present moment.

This lifestyle and perspective change also includes learning to accept situations as they are without blame or criticism. This is instrumental in making life more meaningful and less anxiety-provoking. She also points out that it is important to learn to relax and go with the flow of life instead of resisting it through compulsive worrying

2. Regular exercise

Light but consistent exercise, about three to four times per week, does wonders for the mind and body. Besides helping with stress-relief, regular exercise enhances the body’s immune system and improves how it copes with anxiety. Women who exercise consistently find it also releases mental tension and wards off illness.

Studies report that both resistance exercise such as weights and aerobic exercise such as walking are particularly effective for targeting the primary symptoms of GAD, which are irritability, anxiety, and low energy levels. To top it off, the positive effects of exercise are felt relatively quickly.

3. Emotion work

Emotion work is about learning to better manage your emotions and feelings. As challenging as it might be, most women could benefit from unlearning old, habitual patterns of dealing with stress. Coping strategies that worked in the past by helping us to avoid unpleasant thoughts and feelings are often no longer useful.

It’s often the case that women need to learn new mental skills to get out of being trapped by anxiety, says Marcelle Pick. Self-help literature, support groups, or professional psychological help are all good places to start for those who don’t know how to tackle emotion work.

4. Relaxation techniques

Yoga, meditation, tai chi, hypnotherapy and a host of mind-body therapies are available to help us release stress and deal better with everyday anxiety. Regular deep-breathing exercises, massage, and listening to soothing music daily are especially effective for minimising GAD.

Yoga has been found to be so effective at reducing anxiety that it is being integrated into stress-reducing programmes designed for survivors of natural disasters. Most of these mind-body techniques can be done at home when it’s convenient.

anxiety in women

Assuming the modern world is not going to get any easier for women in the near future, it is important that we equip ourselves with some effective tools to help us guard against excessive worry. At the same time, we need to be patient with ourselves when trying out these new techniques.

Mindful living and mind-body therapies such as yoga and meditation take practice and you need to give yourself the time and space to gradually integrate them into your life. It is not uncommon for women to use anxiety-reducing skills to further beat themselves up over difficulties in adopting these skills.

The last thing we want is for these skills to produce more anxiety, so be kind to yourself, give yourself time, and remind yourself of this mantra by Dr Susan Jeffers, best-selling author of Feel the Fear and Do it Anyway: “One step at a time is enough for me.”

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Ask Sarah

Q I’ve heard a lot about the Paleo diet and as I am very interested in reducing the amount of processed foods and grain based meals my family eats, we are considering following this diet. From what I read it seems to be a back-to-basics type of eating. Is a Paleo diet safe for children? My kids are aged seven and nine.

A The Paleo diet is one of the most fashionable diets around at the moment. It is also known as the ‘caveman diet’ and is based on cutting out processed foods, starchy foods like bread and potatoes and eating more meat, vegetables and fruit.
As fad diets go, it is not the worst but there are some good and bad sides to it. Reducing the amount of processed foods we eat is always a good idea and by doing that you will usually reduce the amount of fat, salt and sugar you eat, which is a good thing! The problem with the Paleo diet is that it also cuts out dairy (on the basis that cavemen didn’t drink milk) and this means that the diet is very low in calcium. For this reason it is really not suitable for children who do need a lot of calcium for growing bones. How did cavemen manage without dairy? They ate a lot more food than we do (up to 10,000 calories per day compared to the 2,000 most of us eat). By eating that amount of food they were able to pick up just enough calcium from green vegetables and seeds. To put it in perspective, you would need to eat 16 servings of broccoli a day to get all the calcium you need. This is easier to do if you eat 10,000 calories per day rather than 2,000.
The other problem with the paleo diet is that it is not entirely based in science. Many of the Paleo diets out there say you should not eat wheat, even though we know that cavemen did in fact eat wheat and other grains. These diets also don’t recommend that you eat blubber and the big lumps of fat that were also a large part of the caveman diet!
A final problem is that many Paleo diets encourage people to cut out beans and lentils and to get their protein from meat and fish instead. Many studies over the last few years are clear that eating too much animal protein is linked with more cancer and heart disease. Eating some vegetarian meals based on beans and lentils is a great way to get your protein without always going for meat.
Is this a diet we should follow? I think there is a lot we can learn from the Paleo diets. We could all do with eating less salt, sugar and processed foods and adding in more nuts and seeds as well as more vegetables. However, I think following a strict Paleo diet could lead to low levels of calcium and vitamin D and so it is not suitable for children or teens and adults would need to think about a calcium supplement.

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ASK LUCY

Q My son is 18 months old and has just started saying his first words. It is an extremely exciting time in our house and my husband and I are eager to encourage his speaking as much possible. What advice would you give us on how we can foster this without bombarding and confusing him?

AThere is nothing better than hearing your baby begin to talk. All the hard work you have put in over the last two years is coming back tenfold.
Toddlers will vary significantly with ability and speed of which they talk however a guide would be about 50 words by 2 years of age. The most important thing to watch for is that your baby/toddler is cooing and babbling and begins to string sounds together like “Mama/Dada” They should have a wide range of speech sounds and like to imitate you and things they hear.
There are many ways that you can promote Speech and Language development at home:
1. Slowing down your own speech and taking time over conversations with your little one. Every day is a new experience when you are 18 months, nappy changes, bath time, baking a cake brings endless opportunity for you to interact and offer new words for them to hear and repeat. Make eye contact, smile and use exaggerated tones to keep things interesting and fun for your tot.
2. Review the toys that you have on offer to your tot and ensure that they give plenty of open ended play opportunities. Role play is a wonderful way to allow children to take the lead. Kitchens with lots of plates, cups and pots. Fill the pots with dry pasta and allow your child to cook and serve you. Playdoh, painting, gardening and sandpits are also great for allowing your child to take the lead and babble about what they are doing. Read plenty of books together and point and allow them time to answer any questions that you ask.
3. Limit screen time. Overuse of televisions and iPads do not give your child opportunity to interact in a two way manner.
4. Ask your child lots of open ended questions “What’s that?” “Where are we?” Point at things they know the answer to for boosting confidence (Car/ Car, etc.) When they don’t know the answer, explain it to them. Limit baby talk and speak clearly with good pronunciation, remember you are the teacher and they will copy you.
If you are concerned about your child’s speech and language development, be sure to speak with your GP or developmental Health Nurse. They are very skilled at understanding the difference between speech delays and spotting something that may require professional attention.
Enjoy watching their little brains absorb the world around them and listen to what they have to say. It won’t be too long before they won’t stop talking to you, asking “Why Mummy/ Daddy?” every 5 minutes….